Note: this page will get updated soon to keep up with new research. Action ideas to promote 3D Health are listed by category and are also presented in a table below the list. Clicking on a list item will bring you to the spot where it appears in the table. Below each idea in the table are related study citations along with key statistically significant findings (white background). Feel free to use these studies for your own work, and please contact us about any you feel are flawed or others we should add.

Daily Habits:

Building Knowledge and Skills:

Identifying and Dealing with Hazards:

Daily Support:

Emergency Support:

ENGAGING IN REGULAR, VIGOROUS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 
Aires L, Andersen LB, Mendonça D, Martins C, Silva G, Mota J. Acta Paediatr. 2010 Jan;99(1):140-4. A 3-year longitudinal analysis of changes in fitness, physical activity, fatness and screen time.Abstract
For a group of 11-19-year-olds, physical activity index (PAI) score was associated with fitness test performance
Babiss LA, Gangwisch JE. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2009 Oct;30(5):376-84. Sports participation as a protective factor against depression and suicidal ideation in adolescents as mediated by self-esteem and social support.Abstract
For a group of adolescents, time spent participating in sports was associated with reduced risk of both depression and suicidal ideation
Brand S, Beck J, Gerber M, Hatzinger M, Holsboer-Trachsler E. J Health Psychol. 2009 Nov;14(8):1144-55. 'Football is good for your sleep': favorable sleep patterns and psychological functioning of adolescent male intense football players compared to controls.Abstract
Compared to a group of non-soccer-playing controls, soccer players reported better ability to fall and stay asleep, along with less sleep variability between weekdays and weekends
Heath GW, Brown DW. J Phys Act Health. 2009 Jul;6(4):403-11. Recommended levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life among overweight and obese adults in the United States, 2005.Abstract
For overweight and obese American adults, higher health-related quality of life scores were associated with those who met CDC physical activity recommendations compared to those who did not
Kwak L, Kremers SP, Bergman P, Ruiz JR, Rizzo NS, Sjöström M. J Pediatr. 2009 Dec;155(6):914-918.e1. Associations between physical activity, fitness, and academic achievement.Abstract
For a group of 9 th -graders, girls’ academic achievement was associated with time spent in vigorous physical activity, while boys’ academic achievement was associated with fitness level
Mota J, Vale S. Am J Hum Biol. 2009 Dec 28. Associations between sleep quality with cardiorespiratory fitness and BMI among adolescent girls.Abstract
For a group of teenage girls, cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with sleep quality, while BMI was not
Rottensteiner M, Leskinen T, Niskanen E et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015 Mar;47(3):509-18. Physical activity, fitness, glucose homeostasis, and brain morphology in twins.Abstract
Among Finnish adult male identical twins, regular exercise was associated with reduced type 2 diabetes risk factors and larger grey matter (brain development).
van de Laar RJ, Ferreira I, van Mechelen W, Prins MH, Twisk JW, Stehouwer CD. Hypertension. 2010 Jan;55(1):33-9. Lifetime vigorous but not light-to-moderate habitual physical activity impacts favorably on carotid stiffness in young adults: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.Abstract
For a group of subjects followed from age 13 to 36, the amount of time spent in vigorous physical activity was more associated with improved cardiovascular health than time spent in “light-to-moderate” physical activity
van der Heijden GJ, Toffolo G, Manesso E, Sauer PJ, Sunehag AL. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Nov;94(11):4292-9. Aerobic exercise increases peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in sedentary adolescents.Abstract
For a group of post-pubertal sedentary adolescents, a 12-week aerobic exercise program improved the peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity of both lean and obese participants
Wallman K, Plant LA, Rakimov B, Maiorana AJ. Res Sports Med. 2009;17(3):156-70. The effects of two modes of exercise on aerobic fitness and fat mass in an overweight population.Abstract
For groups of sedentary overweight and obese adults, 8 weeks of interval training plus diet education produced a loss in android fat mass and improved VO2 max, while continuous aerobic exercise plus diet education only improved VO2 max

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EATING PRIMARILY WHOLE FOODS 
Blomhoff R, Carlsen MH, Andersen LF, Jacobs DR Jr. Br J Nutr. 2006 Nov;96 Suppl 2:S52-60. Health benefits of nuts: potential role of antioxidants.Abstract
Among adults, consuming nuts and peanut butter was associated with lower mortality rates from cardiovascular and coronary heart disease
Bradlee ML, Singer MR, Qureshi MM, Moore LL. Public Health Nutr. 2009 Sep 22:1-9. Food group intake and central obesity among children and adolescents in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).Abstract
American children and adolescents who relatively low amounts of dairy, grains, and total fruits were more likely to have central obesity than those who consumed high amounts of these foods.
Francis DK, Van den Broeck J, Younger N, McFarlane S, Rudder K, Gordon-Strachan G, Grant A, Johnson A, Tulloch-Reid M, Wilks R. Public Health Nutr. 2009 Aug;12(8):1106-14. Fast-food and sweetened beverage consumption: association with overweight and high waist circumference in adolescents. Abstract
Among adolescents, low fruit intakes and high sweetened beverage intakes were both associated with being overweight
Hu FB. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2009 Jul;11(4):257-63. Diet and lifestyle influences on risk of coronary heart disease. (review)Abstract
Cardiovascular disease risk has depended on types of fats and carbohydrates consumed more than total amounts of these macronutrients
Palacios C, Joshipura K, Willett W. Oral Dis. 2009 Sep;15(6):369-81. Nutrition and health: guidelines for dental practitioners. (review)Full Text
Intake of high-quality carbohydrates (including whole grains, fruits, and vegetables) have consistently been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), while intake of sugar, sweetened beverages, and trans fats have been consistently associated with negative health effects including caries, diabetes, and CVD

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EATING ORGANIC FOODS 
Curl C, Fenske R, Elgethun K. Organophosphorus pesticide exposure of urban and suburban preschool children with organic and conventional diets. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 March; 111(3): 377–382.Full Text
Potentially toxic organophosphorous pesticide metabolites are significantly lower among children consuming organic compared to conventional diets.
Farzaneh-Far R, Lin J, Epel ES, Harris WS, Blackburn EH, Whooley MA. JAMA. 2010 Jan 20;303(3):250-7. Association of marine omega-3 fatty acid levels with telomeric aging in patients with coronary heart disease.Abstract
Among a group of coronary heart disease patients, blood levels of EPA+DHA over a 5-year period were associated with reduced telomere shortening, a sign of aging.
Finamore A, Britti MS, Roselli M, Bellovino D, Gaetani S, Mengheri E. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Dec 1;52(24):7425-31. Novel approach for food safety evaluation. Results of a pilot experiment to evaluate organic and conventional foods.Abstract
Proper immune responses in malnourished rats were impaired for a group consuming conventional wheat for 30 days compared to a group consuming organic wheat.
Harari R, Julvez J, Murata K, Barr D, Bellinger DC, Debes F, Grandjean P. Environ Health Perspec. 2010 Feb 25. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides.Full Text
Among a group of 6-to-8-year-old children, prenatal exposure to pesticides used to grow flowers in Ecuador (at levels without noticeable negative effects on their mothers' health) was associated with 1-2-year delays in motor speed and coordination, "visuospatial performance," and visual memory.
Lu C, Toepel K, Irish R, Fenske R, Barr D, Bravo R. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 February; 114(2): 260-263. Organic diets significantly lower childrens dietary exposure to organophosphorous pesticides.Full Text
Potentially toxic organophosphorous pesticide metabolites are significantly reduced in children switching from a conventional to an organic diet for 5 days.

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EATING A LOT OF VEGETABLES 
Freedman ND, Park Y, Subar AF, Hollenbeck AR, Leitzmann MF, Schatzkin A, Abnet CC. Int J Cancer. 2008 May 15;122(10):2330-6. Fruit and vegetable intake and head and neck cancer risk in a large United States prospective cohort study.Abstract
Among American adults, high levels of intake of fruits and vegetables, but particularly vegetables, was associated with reduced rates of head and neck cancers
Trichopoulou A, Bamia C, Trichopoulos D. BMJ. 2009 Jun 23;338:b2337. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b2337. Anatomy of health effects of Mediterranean diet: Greek EPIC prospective cohort study.Abstract
Among Greek adults, all cause mortality was lower for those more strictly following a Mediterranean diet, particularly in relation to moderate (vs. high) consumption of alcohol, low intake of meat and meat products, and high intake of vegetables, fruits, nuts, olive oil, and legumes.

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EATING NUTS 
Blomhoff R, Carlsen MH, Andersen LF, Jacobs DR Jr. Br J Nutr. 2006 Nov;96 Suppl 2:S52-60. Health benefits of nuts: potential role of antioxidants.Abstract
The high antioxidant levels of walnuts and peanuts may help explain health benefits seen in epidemiological studies
Claesson AL, Holm G, Ernersson A, Lindström T, Nystrom FH. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2009;69(5):598-605. Two weeks of overfeeding with candy, but not peanuts, increases insulin levels and body weight.Abstract
Despite consuming similar amounts of calories, a group of healthy adults who snacked on candy gained more weight and increased average waist circumference compared to a group who snacked on peanuts
Coates AM, Howe PR. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2007 Feb;18(1):25-30. Edible nuts and metabolic health.Abstract
The mechanisms through which nuts exert positive health effects are not fully known, but likely include actions of nutrients such as arginine (an amino acid) and polyphenols in the endothelium
Nash SD, Nash DT. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2008 Dec;10(6):529-35. Nuts as part of a healthy cardiovascular diet. (review)Abstract
Various studies have associated nut consumption with health benefits including improved insulin sensitivity and weight management as well as reduced inflammation
Sabaté J. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):647S-650S. Nut consumption and body weight. (review)Full Text
Existing cumulative data indicate that nut consumption has been associated with improved cardiovascular health but not weight gain
Sabaté J, Ang Y. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;89(5):1643S-1648S. Nuts and health outcomes: new epidemiologic evidence. (review)Abstract
In epidemiological studies, frequent and long-term nut intake has been associated with cardiovascular health benefits as well as reduced risk of diabetes (in women), gallstone diseases, and obesity
Trichopoulou A, Bamia C, Trichopoulos D. BMJ. 2009 Jun 23;338:b2337. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b2337. Anatomy of health effects of Mediterranean diet: Greek EPIC prospective cohort study.Full Text
Among a group of Greek adults, high consumption of nuts was a key factor in predicting lower mortality associated with adhering to a “Mediterranean diet”

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CONSUMING EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL 
Bogani P, Galli C, Villa M, Visioli F. Atherosclerosis. 2007 Jan;190(1):181-6. Postprandial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of extra virgin olive oil.Abstract
Otherwise identical meals containing different types of oil had different effects on inflammatory markers 2 and 6 hours afterward, with extra virgin olive oil decreasing the markers compared to regular olive oil and corn oil

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EATING MODERATE AMOUNTS OF CARBOHYDRATES 
Halton TL, Willett WC, Liu S, Manson JE, Albert CM, Rexrode K, Hu FB. N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 9;355(19):1991-2002. Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women.Full Text
For a large group of American nurses, diets high in carbohydrates were more associated with coronary heart disease than diets lower in carbohydrates and higher in protein and fat
Jönsson T, Granfeldt Y, Ahrén B, Branell UC, Pålsson G, Hansson A, Söderström M, Lindeberg S. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2009 Jul 16;8:35. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study.Full Text
Compared to 3 months following a standard diabetic diet higher in cereals and dairy products and lower in fruits, vegetbales, meat, and eggs, diabetics who followed the “Paleo Diet” for 3 months improved their A1c, triglyceride, blood pressure, weight, and waist circumference

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PRIMARILY DRINKING FILTERED TAP WATER 
Babey SH, Jones M, Yu H, Goldstein H. Policy Brief UCLA Cent Health Policy Res. 2009 Sep;(PB2009-5):1-8. Bubbling over: soda consumption and its link to obesity in California.Abstract
Consuming one or more soda or sweetened beveage daily was associated with rates of overweight and obesity in California
Brown CM, Dulloo AG, Montani JP. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Dec;32 Suppl 6:S28-34. Sugary drinks in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular diseases. (review)Abstract
Intake of refined sugars, particularly in the form of fructose, has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk
Dabrowska A, Nawrocki J. Water Res. 2009 May;43(8):2201-8. Controversies about the occurrence of chloral hydrate in drinking water.Abstract
Biofiltration processes (including granular activated carbon filtration), has not been shown to effectively remove all of the precursors of chloral hydrate (the third most prevalent disinfection byproduct), with efficiency depending on contact time
Falconer IR. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2006 Jun;3(2):180-4. Are endocrine disrupting compounds a health risk in drinking water?Abstract
While amounts of chemicals that mimic estrogen in humans in drinking water have been deemed “unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers,” their presence in certain drinking water sources has prompted use of advanced water treatment, including particle removal, ozone oxidation, and activated charcoal adsorption steps
Hamidin N, Yu QJ, Connell DW. Water Res. 2008 Jul;42(13):3263-74. Epub 2008 Mar 6. Human health risk assessment of chlorinated disinfection by-products in drinking water using a probabilistic approach. (review)Abstract
While differences in exposure levels make it difficult to generalize animal study results to humans, epidemiological data appear to show that chlorination disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water are associated with slightly increased cancer risk in men and developmental effects among infants
Huang AT, Batterman S. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2009 Jul;26(7):947-57. Formation of trihalomethanes in foods and beverages.Abstract
Trihalomethanes (THMs) have been associated with adverse reproductive effects and increased cancer risk, and commonly occur in chlorinated drinking water, as well as foods and beverages prepared using such water, particularly tea
Miller A, Adeli K. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2008 Mar;24(2):204-9. Dietary fructose and the metabolic syndrome. (review)Abstract
Various animal and human studies have associated high fructose intake with fat deposition and specific negative hormonal and metabolic effects characterizing the “metabolic syndrome” and diabetes
Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Grellier J, Smith R, Iszatt N, Bennett J, Best N, Toledano M. Philos Transact A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2009 Oct 13;367(1904):4043-76. The epidemiology and possible mechanisms of disinfection by-products in drinking water. (review)Abstract
Various studies have associated exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes (THMs) with adverse health effects including bladder cancer, but the mechanisms by which such effect occur are not well understood
Ormad MP, Miguel N, Claver A, Matesanz JM, Ovelleiro JL. Chemosphere. 2008 Mar;71(1):97-106. Epub 2007 Nov 26. Pesticides removal in the process of drinking water production.Abstract
Ozone oxidation followed by activated-carbon absorption removed 90% of studied pesticides in water
Rodriguez-Mozaz S, de Alda MJ, Barceló D. J Chromatogr A. 2004 Aug 6;1045(1-2):85-92. Monitoring of estrogens, pesticides and bisphenol A in natural waters and drinking water treatment plants by solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.Abstract
Treating measurably contaminated drinking water with sand filtration, ozonation, activated carbon filtration, and post-chlorination effectively removed a variety of endocrine disruptors, including bisphenol A and atrazine
Stackelberg PE, Gibs J, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Zaugg SD, Lippincott RL. Sci Total Environ. 2007 May 15;377(2-3):255-72. Efficiency of conventional drinking-water-treatment processes in removal of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds.Abstract
Granular-activated-carbon filtration at a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant removed 53% of organic compounds (OCs) including pharmaceuticals and pesticides, while chlorine disinfection removed 32% and clarification 15%, thus removing most but not all of the OCs
Stanhope KL, Schwarz JM, Keim NL, Griffen SC, Bremer AA, Graham JL, Hatcher B, Cox CL, Dyachenko A, Zhang W, McGahan JP, Seibert A, Krauss RM, Chiu S, Schaefer EJ, Ai M, Otokozawa S, Nakajima K, Nakano T, Beysen C, Hellerstein MK, Berglund L, Havel PJ. J Clin Invest. 2009 May;119(5):1322-34. doi: 10.1172/JCI37385. Epub 2009 Apr 20. Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans.Full Text
Among overweight and obese adults, drinking fructose-sweetened beverages over a 10-week period negatively effected insulin sensitivity, body fat, blood lipids more than drinking glucose-sweetened beverages
Westerhoff P, Yoon Y, Snyder S, Wert E. Environ Sci Technol. 2005 Sep 1;39(17):6649-63. Fate of endocrine-disruptor, pharmaceutical, and personal care product chemicals during simulated drinking water treatment processes.Abstract
Different ways of filtering drinking water removed contaminants according to their chemical properties and at varied levels of effectiveness, with ozonation being the only effective means to remove chemicals like DEET and ibuprofen, and none of the tested processes (which included powder-activated carbon) effectively removing certain charged and aliphatic “species,” including atrazine

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RELIEVING STRESS (with art, music, reading, yoga, laughing, dancing, talking stuff out, service, being outdoors, meditation, physical activity) 
Bennett MP, Lengacher C. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2008 Mar;5(1):37-40. Humor and Laughter May Influence Health: III. Laughter and Health Outcomes. (review)Full Text
In various studies, laughing has had positive effects on heart and respiratory function as well as muscle tension.
Bittman B, Berk L, Shannon M, Sharaf M, Westengard J, Guegler KJ, Ruff DW. Med Sci Monit. 2005 Feb;11(2):BR31-40. Recreational music-making modulates the human stress response: a preliminary individualized gene expression strategy.Abstract
Following a recreational music-making (RMM) program reduced stress among people following exposure to “a 1-hour stress induction protocol” more than simply ending the protocol
Black DS, Milam J, Sussman S. Pediatrics. 2009 Aug 24. Sitting-Meditation Interventions Among Youth: A Review of Treatment Efficacy. (review)Abstract
While further quality research is needed to clarify findings, various studies have associated sitting meditation (including mindfulness and transcendental meditation) with improved physical and behaviorsal outcomes in youth with ADHD and learning disabilities
Harris DA. Torture. 2007;17(2):134-55. Dance/movement therapy approaches to fostering resilience and recovery among African adolescent torture survivors.Abstract
For South Sudanese youth war refugees who had been tortured, dance/movement therapy (DMT) was associated with reduced “symptoms of anxiety, depression, intrusive recollection, and agression
MacDonald CM. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2004 Mar;42(3):18-25. A chuckle a day keeps the doctor away: therapeutic humor and laughter.Abstract
While more research in the area is needed to clarify how they work, various studies have shown that humor and laughter can have benefits related to immune function, pain tolerance, and responses to stress
Mollborn S, Morningstar E. J Health Soc Behav. 2009 Sep;50(3):310-26. Investigating the relationship between teenage childbearing and psychological distress using longitudinal evidence.Abstract
Relatively high levels of distress were associated with teen pregnancy in resource-limited situations, though childbearing did not appear to be the source of the distress.
Trappe HJ. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2009 Dec;134(51-52):2601-6. Music and health--what kind of music is helpful for whom? What music not? (review)Abstract
In various studies, classical music has been used effectively to reduce anxiety, including as a preoperative alternative to the drug midazolam
Washington TD. J Pediatr Nurs. 2009 Aug;24(4):302-13. Psychological stress and anxiety in middle to late childhood and early adolescence: manifestations and management. (review)Abstract
It is critical to recognize signs of stress in children and to help them develop positive coping skills to promote “mental, physical, and emotional health.”
Yang KP, Su WM, Huang CK. J Nurs Res. 2009 Dec;17(4):261-9. The effect of meditation on physical and mental health in junior college students: a quasi-experimental study.Abstract
For a group of college students, meditating for 2 hours per week over an 18-week period reduced physical and mental symptoms of stress compared to a control group that did not meditate

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SLEEPING 7-11 HOURS NIGHTLY (depending on age) 
Bixler E. Sleep Med. 2009 Sep;10 Suppl 1:S3-6. Sleep and society: an epidemiological perspective. (review)Abstract
Reported sleep time has decreased in the last 50 years to below optimal levels, and various studies have associated suboptimal sleep duration with sickness and death
Catrett CD, Gaultney JF. J Genet Psychol. 2009 Dec;170(4):287-309. Possible insomnia predicts some risky behaviors among adolescents when controlling for depressive symptoms.Abstract
Among American adolescents, possible insomnia was associated with increased smoking, delinquency, and drinking and driving
Hirshkowitz M, Whiton K, Albert SM, et al. Sleep Journal. 2015 Jan. National Sleep Foundation's sleep time duration recommendations; methodology and results summary.Full Text
An 18-member multidisciplinary expert panel recommended nightly sleep amounts of 9 to 11 hours for "school-aged children," 8 to 10 for teens, 7 to 9 for adults, and 7 to 8 for older adults.
Pasch KE, Laska MN, Lytle LA, Moe SG. Am J Health Behav. 2010 Mar-Apr;34(2):237-48. Adolescent sleep, risk behaviors, and depressive symptoms: are they linked?Abstract
Among American adolescents, greater weekday sleep duration was associated with lower rates of depressive symptoms and alcohol intake, while inconsistent sleep patterns were associated with higher rates of these behaviors
Van Cauter E, Knutson KL. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008 Dec;159 Suppl 1:S59-66. Sleep and the epidemic of obesity in children and adults. (review)Full Text
Various studies have associated suboptimal sleep duration with obesity and weight gain, likely related to metabolic and hormonal effects related to appetite, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity

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SUPPLEMENTING WITH VITAMIN D 
Ginde AA, Sullivan AF, Mansbach JM, Camargo CA Jr. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Jan 8. Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age in the United States.Abstract
Vitamin D insufficiency was common among American women ages 13-44 years between 2001 and 2006, and while prenatal vitamin supplements raised serum levels of 25(OH)D, daily supplementation of 400 IU appeared inadequate for attaining ideal levels to promote health
Hughes DA, Norton R. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009 Oct;158(1):20-5. Vitamin D and respiratory health. (review)Full Text
Vitamin D appears to have immunity-enhancing effects, particularly in relation to respiratory pathogens.
Lamberg-Allardt CJ, Viljakainen HT. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Aug;88(2):534S-536S. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and functional outcomes in adolescents. (review)Full Text
Long-term vitamin D supplementation studies in adolescents have yielded promising bone health results, while vitamin D status and bone mineral density have been positively associated in other studies
Stoffman N, Gordon CM. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2009 Aug;21(4):465-71. Vitamin D and adolescents: what do we know? (review)Abstract
While there are gaps in understandings about ideal supplementation regimens, poor vitamin D status has common been found for healthy and ill adolescents in and outside countries exposed to significant amounts of sunlight
Teegarden D, Donkin SS. Nutr Res Rev. 2009 Jun;22(1):82-92. Vitamin D: emerging new roles in insulin sensitivity. (review)Abstract
Restoring proper vitamin D status has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity among non-diabetics, while poor vitamin D status has been associated with diabetes

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SUPPLEMENTING WITH FISH OIL 
Yashodhara BM, Umakanth S, Pappachan JM, Bhat SK, Kamath R, Choo BH. Postgrad Med J. 2009 Feb;85(1000):84-90. Omega-3 fatty acids: a comprehensive review of their role in health and disease. (review)Abstract
In various scientific studies, omega-3 fatty acid intake has been associated with reduced morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease as well as improved health outcomes associated with “dyslipidaemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, obesity, inflammatory diseases, neurological/ neuropsychiatric disorders and eye diseases”

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DEVELOPING BODY SKILLS : posture, moving, lifting things, breathing, recognizing feedback 
Chelly MS, Fathloun M, Cherif N, Ben Amar M, Tabka Z, Van Praagh E. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Nov;23(8):2241-9. Effects of a back squat training program on leg power, jump, and sprint performances in junior soccer players.Abstract
For a group of male junior soccer players, performing half squats twice per week for 2 months improved sprint and jumping peformance more than regular training
Meylan C, Malatesta D. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Dec;23(9):2605-13. Effects of in-season plyometric training within soccer practice on explosive actions of young players.Abstract
For a group of 13-year-old soccer players, integrating plyometric training into soccer practice for 8 weeks improved sprinting, agility, and jump height compared to a group that trained for the same amount of time with standard drills
Oliver GD, Di Brezzo R. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Oct;23(7):2124-9. Functional balance training in collegiate women athletes.Abstract
Adding functional balance training (10 minutes per day 4 times per week) to in-season training by division I female athletes improved core function and likely reduced risk of injury more than regular in-season training.
Oxyzoglou N, Kanioglou A, Ore G. Percept Mot Skills. 2009 Jun;108(3):873-7. Velocity, agility, and flexibility performance after handball training versus physical education program for preadolescent children.Abstract
For a group of Greek children, handball training improved speed, agility, and flexibility more than a “mainstream physical education program”
Rhea MR, Kenn JG, Dermody BM. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Dec;23(9):2645-50. Alterations in speed of squat movement and the use of accommodated resistance among college athletes training for power.Abstract
For a group of division I athletes, doing squats quickly with free weights plus elastic bands increased explosive strength more effectively than training at slower speeds without bands.
Schwanbeck S, Chilibeck PD, Binsted G. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Dec;23(9):2588-91. A comparison of free weight squat to Smith machine squat using electromyography.Abstract
For a group of adults, leg muscle activity was 43% higher during free weight squatting compared to squatting on a Smith machine.
Stodden D, Langendorfer S, Roberton MA. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2009 Jun;80(2):223-9.The association between motor skill competence and physical fitness in young adults.Abstract
Among a group of young American adults, competence in throwing, kicking, and jumping predicted 79% of variance in overall fitness
Tsang TW, Kohn M, Chow CM, Singh MF. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jul;22(7):595-607. A randomized controlled trial of Kung Fu training for metabolic health in overweight/obese adolescents: the "martial fitness" study.Abstract
For a group of overweight/obese adolescents completing 6 months of Tai Chi or Kung Fu training was associated with reduced inflammatory marker levels and increased upper body strength.
Wong PL, Chaouachi A, Chamari K, Dellal A, Wisloff U. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Oct 7. Effect of Preseason Concurrent Muscular Strength and High-Intensity Interval Training in Professional Soccer Players.Abstract
For professional male soccer players, addition of high-intensity interval training and weight training twice per week for 8 weeks improved performance in vertical jump, sprinting, weight lifting, and “aerobic speed” tests more than regular soccer training

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GARDENING 
Parmer SM, Salisbury-Glennon J, Shannon D, Struempler B. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2009 May-Jun;41(3):212-7. School gardens: an experiential learning approach for a nutrition education program to increase fruit and vegetable knowledge, preference, and consumption among second-grade students.Abstract
Children who helped with a school garden in addition to receiving nutrition education were more likely to eat vegetables during subsequent school lunches than children who only received nutrition education or children who were involved with neither activity

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BEING MINDFUL 
Greeson JM. Complement Health Pract Rev. 2009 Jan 1;14(1):10-18. Mindfulness Research Update: 2008. (review)Full Text
In a variety of studies, mindfulness training has demonstrated a range of benefits for health behaviors such as eating, sleeping and substance use as well as for immune system health and quality of life
Péneau S, Mekhmoukh A, Chapelot D, Dalix AM, Airinei G, Hercberg S, Bellisle F. Br J Nutr. 2009 Dec;102(12):1854-9. Influence of environmental factors on food intake and choice of beverage during meals in teenagers: a laboratory study.Abstract
During a meal, adolsescents consumed more soda when watching TV than when listening to music or when neither watching TV nor listening to music

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COMMUNICATING EFFECTIVELY 
Levy SA, Westin AM, Reamy AM, Reyner JC, Syed T, Diamond GS. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010 Jan 6. Communication about smoking between depressed adolescents and their parents.Abstract
Among a group of depressed adolescent smokers, positive impact of parental messages about quitting smoking was associated with communication quality but not content

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BEING A SAVVY CONSUMER OF MEDIA 
Braun-Courville DK, Rojas M. J Adolesc Health. 2009 Aug;45(2):156-62. Exposure to sexually explicit Web sites and adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors.Abstract
Among adolescents in New York City, more than half reported visiting sexually explicit websites, and visiting such sites was associated with higher numbers of sexual partners and substance use, possibly due to impacts on attitudes
Buijzen M. Br J Dev Psychol. 2009 Mar;27(Pt 1):105-21. The effectiveness of parental communication in modifying the relation between food advertising and children's consumption behaviour.Abstract
Explaining the nature and purpose of commercials to children as well as emphasizing intake control reduced their intake of advertised energy-dense foods
Forman J, Halford JC, Summe H, MacDougall M, Keller KL. Appetite. 2009 Aug;53(1):76-83. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.Abstract
Compared to children of normal body weight, overweight children ate more when provided brand-name foods compared to unbranded foods, indicating greater susceptibility to food marketing effects
Goris JM, Petersen S, Stamatakis E, Veerman JL. Public Health Nutr. 2009 Dec 17:1-10. Television food advertising and the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity: a multicountry comparison.Abstract
Estimated daily exposure of American children to TV commercials is 11.5 minutes per day and has an estimated contribution to childhood obesity in the United States of 16-40%.
Harris JL, Bargh JA, Brownell KD. Health Psychol. 2009 Jul;28(4):404-13. Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behavior. Abstract
While watching TV, children exposed to food advertisements ate 45% more of a snack compared to children exposed to non-food advertisements
Henry AE, Story M. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2009 Sep-Oct;41(5):353-9. Food and beverage brands that market to children and adolescents on the internet: a content analysis of branded web sites.Abstract
For food and beverage brand websites, for which 87% of the foods and beverages were deemed “of low nutritional quality,” 48% of sites included designated children’s areas, 85% had advergaming, 92% had interactive programs, and a majority had “branded spokescharacters”
Zimmerman FJ, Bell JF. Am J Public Health. 2010 Feb;100(2):334-40. Associations of television content type and obesity in children.Abstract
Among American children, BMI in 2002 was positively related to exposure to TV commercials in 1997 but not television viewing in general

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BUYING FOODS THAT ARE PRODUCED WITH RESPECT FOR WORKERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 
Robinson-O'Brien R, Larson N, Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan P, Story M. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2009 Jan-Feb;41(1):11-8. Characteristics and dietary patterns of adolescents who value eating locally grown, organic, nongenetically engineered, and nonprocessed food.Abstract
Compared to their peers, adolescents valuing 2 or more characteristics (out of locally grown, organic, GMO-free, and nonprocessed) were more likely to meet Healthy People 2010 objectives for eating fruits and vegetables

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MODELING HEALTHY BEHAVIORS FOR OTHERS 
Davison KK, Jago R. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Sep;41(9):1816-25. Change in parent and peer support across ages 9 to 15 yr and adolescent girls' physical activity.Abstract
American girls ages 9-15 were more likely to maintain physical activities when exposed to parental modeling, especially when provided with logistical and social network support during adolescence
Gossrau-Breen D, Kuntsche E, Gmel G. J Adolesc.. My older sibling was drunk - Younger siblings' drunkenness in relation to parental monitoring and the parent-adolescent relationship.Abstract
Risky drinking behaviors among younger siblings were positively associated with drinking behaviors of older siblings and negatively associated with parental monitoring
Hayatbakhsh MR, Najman JM, Bor W, O'Callaghan MJ, Williams GM. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2009;35(6):399-407. Multiple risk factor model predicting cannabis use and use disorders: a longitudinal study.Abstract
Maternal smoking was one of several factors associated with early adult cannabis use and use disorders
Steffen LM, Dai S, Fulton JE, Labarthe DR. Am J Prev Med. 2009 Jul;37(1 Suppl):S50-5. Overweight in children and adolescents associated with TV viewing and parental weight: Project HeartBeat!Abstract
Obesogenic behavior modeling by overweight/obese parents appeared to increase TV viewing and weight gain during childhood

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AVOIDING SIGNIFICANT AMOUNTS OF ALCOHOL DURING BRAIN DEVELOPMENT 
Crego A, Rodriguez-Holguín S, Parada M, Mota N, Corral M, Cadaveira F. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Jan 14. Reduced anterior prefrontal cortex activation in young binge drinkers during a visual working memory task.Abstract
Binge drinking appears to reduce memory processes in college students.
Helfer JL, Goodlett CR, Greenough WT, Klintsova AY. Brain Res. 2009 Oct 19;1294:1-11. Epub 2009 Aug 6. The effects of exercise on adolescent hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of binge alcohol exposure during the brain growth spurt.Abstract
In rats, exercise can induce new brain cell growth, but binge-like exposure to alcohol reduces the survival of these cells.
Philpot RM, Wecker L, Kirstein CL. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2009 Dec;27(8):805-15. Epub 2009 Aug 25. Repeated ethanol exposure during adolescence alters the developmental trajectory of dopaminergic output from the nucleus accumbens septi. (animal trial)Abstract
Ability to adapt to effects of repeated exposure to alcohol improves in rats over 45 days old, possibly explaining increased vulnerability to alcohol addiction among adolescents.
Squeglia LM, Jacobus J, Tapert SF. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2009 Jan;40(1):31-8. The influence of substance use on adolescent brain development. (review)Abstract
Brain volume, white matter quality, and cognitive task abilities can be negatively effected in adolescents who consume 20 or more servings of alcohol per month for 1-2 years, especially those drinking more than 4 or 5 servings at a time.

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AVOIDING SMOKE, TOBACCO, AND DRUGS 
Agrawal A, Silberg JL, Lynskey MT, Maes HH, Eaves LJ. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Jan 2. Mechanisms underlying the lifetime co-occurrence of tobacco and cannabis use in adolescent and young adult twins.Abstract
Among adolescents, marijuana use increased the likelihood of cigarette use
Froehlich TE, Lanphear BP, Auinger P, Hornung R, Epstein JN, Braun J, Kahn RS. Pediatrics. 2009 Dec;124(6):e1054-63. Association of tobacco and lead exposures with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.Abstract
Among American 8-to-15-year-olds, ADHD incidence was related to prenatal nicotine exposure and existing blood lead levels, but particularly to a combination of those factors
Gordon JS, Albert DA, Crews KM, Fried J. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2009 Sep;28(5):517-32. Tobacco education in dentistry and dental hygiene.Abstract
Tobacco use has been associated with many oral diseases, necessitating standards for guiding dentists to help patients to quit
Gyekis J, Anthony K, Foreman JE, Klein LC, Vandenbergh DJ. Reprod Toxicol. 2010 Jan 14. Perinatal Nicotine Exposure Delays Genital Development in Mice.Abstract
Among mice, exposure to nicotine in the womb and prior to weaning delayed genital development and reduced adolescent body weight (i.e., had hormone-disrupting effects)
Kim DS, Kim HS. Yonsei Med J. 2010 Jan 31;51(1):18-26. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse linked to suicidal ideation and attempts: findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey.Abstract
Among adolescents, and especially preteens, considering and attempting suicide were both associated with early initiation of drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, and having sexual intercourse
Klein H, Elifson KW, Sterk CE. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2009 Jun;41(2):113-20. Young adult Ecstasy users' enhancement of the effects of their Ecstasy use.Abstract
Among young American adults, strategies to enhance the effects of Ecstasy included binging on the drug and were associated with dependency symptoms
Lai HK, Ho SY, Wang MP, Lam TH. Pediatrics. 2009 Nov;124(5):1306-10. Secondhand smoke and respiratory symptoms among adolescent current smokers.Abstract
Among adolescent smokers, exposure to second-hand smoke at home was associated with increased reported respiratory symptoms compared to those not exposed to second-hand smoke
Marano C, Schober SE, Brody DJ, Zhang C. Pediatrics. 2009 Nov;124(5):1299-305. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among children and adolescents: United States, 2003-2006.Abstract
Children exposed to second-hand smoke at home had serum levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine that were an order of magnitude higher than for unexposed children
O'Callaghan FV, Al Mamun A, O'Callaghan M, Alati R, Najman JM, Williams GM, Bor W. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2009 Aug;33(4):371-7. Maternal smoking during pregnancy predicts nicotine disorder (dependence or withdrawal) in young adults - a birth cohort study.Abstract
Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy were more likely to have nicotine dependency or withdrawal symptoms than children of mothers who never smoked
Peleg-Oren N, Saint-Jean G, Cardenas GA, Tammara H, Pierre C. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 Nov;33(11):1966-72. Drinking alcohol before age 13 and negative outcomes in late adolescence.Abstract
Adolescents who began drinking alcohol before age 13 were more likely than those who didn’t to later have school performance-related problems or to have brought a weapon to school, or to have used marijuana
Pujazon-Zazik M, Park MJ. Am J Mens Health. 2009 Sep;3(3):265-74. Marijuana: use among young males and health outcomes.Abstract
Among males, marijuana use has been associated with certain cancers (with some conflicting results) and consistently associated with psuchiatric problems
Richter PA, Bishop EE, Wang J, Swahn MH. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 Jul;6(7):1930-46. Tobacco smoke exposure and levels of urinary metals in the U.S. youth and adult population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004.Abstract
The levels of toxic metals including cadmium, lead, antimony, and barium were higher among smokers compared to nonsmokers

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AVOIDING PROCESSED AND CONVENTIONALLY PRODUCED MEATS 
Sinha R, Cross AJ, Graubard BI, Leitzmann MF, Schatzkin A. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Mar 23;169(6):562-71. Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Abstract
Among Americans over age 50, high red and processed meat intake was associated with increased mortality from all causes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease

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AVOIDING OTHER PROCESSED FOODS (including refined carbs, trans fats) 
Ascherio A. Atheroscler Suppl. 2006 May;7(2):25-7. Trans fatty acids and blood lipids.Abstract
Consuming trans fat has been directly associated with adverse effects on the LDL:HDL ratio, but greater heart disease-related deaths associated with high intakes appear to reflect more mechanisms for trans fat toxicity
Bocarsly ME, Powell ES, Avena NM, Hoebel BG. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010 Feb 26. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: Increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels.Abstract
Compared to rats who consumed 10% total calories from sucrose (table sugar) for 8 weeks, rats who consumed 8% of total calories from high fructose corn syrup (equivalent to 40 g/d of high fructose corn syrup for a human diet with 2000 total calories per day) gained significantly more body weight. Again compared to sucrose, daily intake of HFCS for 6 to 7 months was associated with increased abdominal fat and higher triglycerides.
Chapple IL. J Am Dent Assoc. 2009 Feb;140(2):178-84. Potential mechanisms underpinning the nutritional modulation of periodontal inflammation.Abstract
Diets high in refined carbohydrates have been associated with increased risk of periodontitis related to hyperinflammation
Claesson AL, Holm G, Ernersson A, Lindström T, Nystrom FH. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2009;69(5):598-605. Two weeks of overfeeding with candy, but not peanuts, increases insulin levels and body weight.Abstract
Despite consuming similar amounts of calories, a group of healthy adults who snacked on candy gained more weight and increased average waist circumference compared to a group who snacked on peanuts
Dufault R, Schnoll R, Lukiw WJ, Leblanc B, Cornett C, Patrick L, Wallinga D, Gilbert SG, Crider R. Behav Brain Funct. 2009 Oct 27;5:44. Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children.Full Text
Consuming high fructose corn syrup, which has been frequently shown to contain trace but potentially biologically significant amounts of mercury, may increase the risk or severity of behavior disorders and learning disabilities
Metzger MW, McDade TW. Am J Hum Biol. 2009 Aug 19. Breastfeeding as obesity prevention in the United States: A sibling difference model.Abstract
Among American siblings, formula-fed infants were more likely to be overweight or obese, on average weighing about 13 pounds more than their breast-fed siblings age 14
Moore SC, Carter LM, van Goozen S. Br J Psychiatry. 2009 Oct;195(4):366-7. Confectionery consumption in childhood and adult violence.Abstract
Eating candy on a daily basis at age 10 was associated with an increased likelihood of being convicted of a violent crime at age 34
Siri-Tarino PW, Sun Q, Hu FB, Krauss RM. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Mar;91(3):502-9. Epub 2010 Jan 20. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease.Abstract
In a meta-analysis of available research, replacing a portion of dietary saturated fat with carbohydrates, especially refined carbohydrates, was associated with increased insulin resistance, obesity, and related cardiovascular disease risk.

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AVOIDING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS (especially BPA, phthalates, and atrazine) AND HELPING OTHERS DO THE SAME 
Carwile JL, Luu HT, Bassett LS, Driscoll DA, Yuan C, Chang JY, Ye X, Calafat AM, Michels KB. Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Sep;117(9):1368-72. Polycarbonate bottle use and urinary bisphenol A concentrations.Abstract
Drinking cold water from a polycarbonate bottle for a week increased urinary bisphenol A (BPA) levels by 69% compared to when not using such bottles for at least a week
Desvergne B, Feige JN, Casals-Casas C. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009 May 25;304(1-2):43-8. PPAR-mediated activity of phthalates: A link to the obesity epidemic? (review)Abstract
Phthalates may contribute to obesity by disrupting carbohydrate or fat metabolism, possibly including by interacting with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)
Graziano N, McGuire MJ, Roberson A, Adams C, Jiang H, Blute N. Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Feb 15;40(4):1163-71. 2004 National Atrazine Occurrence Monitoring Program using the Abraxis ELISA method.Abstract
Surface waters have been more vulnerable to atrazine contamination than groundwater, while according the the EPA, short- and long-term atrazine exposure is associated with serious negative health impacts on multiple organ systems and chronic disease risk
Hayes TB, Collins A, Lee M, Mendoza M, Noriega N, Stuart AA, Vonk A. PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) 2002 Apr;99(8):5476-5480. Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses.Abstract
Atrazine, the most prevalent herbicide in the U.S., demasculinized frogs at low exposure levels and may be contributing to reduced amphibian populations worldwide
Heudorf U, Mersch-Sundermann V, Angerer J. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2007 Oct;210(5):623-34. Phthalates: toxicology and exposure.Abstract
Phthalate exposure occurs through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure to things like PVC plastics and may be toxic in relation to development or reproduction in low (environmental) concentrations
Legler, Fletcher, Govarts, et al. Obesity, Diabetes and Associated Costs of Exposure
to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the European
Union. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Mar15.
Full Text
A number of common endocrine-disrupting chemicals are likely contributing to obesity and diabetes in the European Union costing over $18 billion annually.
Mattix KD, Winchester PD, Scherer LR. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Jun;42(6):947-9. Incidence of abdominal wall defects is related to surface water atrazine and nitrate levels.Abstract
Rates of children born with congenital abdominal wall defects including gastroschisis and omphalocele in Indiana between 1990 and 2002 were associated with exposure to atrazine during pregnancy
Midoro-Horiuti T, Tiwari R, Watson CS, Goldblum RM. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Feb;118(2):273-7. Maternal bisphenol a exposure promotes the development of experimental asthma in mouse pups.Abstract
In mice, signs of asthma were greater among pups whose mothers were exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy
Newbold RR, Padilla-Banks E, Jefferson WN. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009 May 25;304(1-2):84-9. Environmental estrogens and obesity. (review)Abstract
Exposure to estrogen-like chemicals in the environment may contribute to obesity and diabetes through disruption of hormonal regulation of fat cell differentiation and bodyweight
Roy JR, Chakraborty S, Chakraborty TR. Med Sci Monit. 2009 Jun;15(6):RA137-45. Estrogen-like endocrine disrupting chemicals affecting puberty in humans--a review.Abstract
A number of industrial chemicals currently abundant in our environment (including DDT, dioxin, PCBs, bisphenol A/BPA, phthalates, and atrazine) can mimic estrogen in the body and have sex-dependent effects like precocious puberty, defininization, and abnormal breast development in girls as well as delayed puberty in boys
Rubin BS, Soto AM. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009 May 25;304(1-2):55-62. Bisphenol A: Perinatal exposure and body weight.Abstract
BPA exposure in the U.S. appears extremely common, and in vitro studies suggest a likely link to increases in obesity based on hormonal effects

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LIMITING TV WATCHING AND VIDEO GAME PLAYING 
Ballard M, Gray M, Reilly J, Noggle M. Eat Behav. 2009 Aug;10(3):161-7. Epub 2009 May 19. Correlates of video game screen time among males: body mass, physical activity, and other media use.Abstract
Time spent in a video game playing session was positively related to BMI and negatively related to exercise frequency.
Beyerlein A, Toschke AM, von Kries R. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Jan 19. Risk factors for childhood overweight: shift of the mean body mass index and shift of the upper percentiles: results from a cross-sectional study.Abstract
TV viewing was associated with weight gain particularly among already overweight children
Price MN, Hyde JS. J Youth Adolesc. 2009 Sep;38(8):1059-71. When two isn't better than one: predictors of early sexual activity in adolescence using a cumulative risk model.Abstract
For adolescents, factors associated with early sexual debut included TV viewing, poor self-esteem (girls only), and poor relationships with parents
Russ SA, Larson K, Franke TM, Halfon N. Acad Pediatr. 2009 Sep-Oct;9(5):300-6. Epub 2009 Jul 9. Associations between media use and health in US children.Abstract
Among white (but not black or Hispanic) children, TV viewing was associated with weight gain, reduced oral health, and social-emotional problems.
Zimmerman FJ, Bell JF. Am J Public Health. 2010 Feb;100(2):334-40. Associations of television content type and obesity in children.Abstract
TV advertising in particular, rather than general TV viewing, was associated with increased BMI in children.

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BUILDING COMMUNITY SUPPORT FOR YOURSELF AND OTHERS 
Corliss HL, Austin SB, Roberts AL, Molnar BE. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009 Dec;18(12):2005-10. Sexual risk in "mostly heterosexual" young women: influence of social support and caregiver mental health.Abstract
For a group of young women, low levels of social support from friends and family were associated with depression and drug use
Kristjansson AL, Sigfusdottir ID, James JE, Allegrante JP, Helgason AR. Addict Behav. 2009 Oct 20. Perceived parental reactions and peer respect as predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use.Abstract
Among a group of adolescents, cigarette smoking and alcohol use were primarily associated with peer use, perceived parental reaction to use, and perceived behavior-specific respect from peers
Lytle LA, Murray DM, Evenson KR, Moody J, Pratt CA, Metcalfe L, Parra-Medina D. Ann Behav Med.. Mediators Affecting Girls' Levels of Physical Activity Outside of School: Findings from the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls.Abstract
For a group of adolescent girls, intensity of physical activity was associated with both total and friend-based social support
Savage JS, Dinallo JM, Downs DS. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2009 Dec 9;6:90. Adolescent body satisfaction: the role of perceived parental encouragement for physical activity.Full Text
Among a group of 15- and 16-year-old adolescents, fathers’ encouragement of physical activity was associated with both physical activity and body satisfaction
Shahtahmasebi S, Berridge D. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2009 Jul-Sep;21(3):371-85. A longitudinal analysis of teenage drinking patterns.Abstract
Among teenagers, heavy drinking and drug use were associated with “social cultures of drinking and parental involvement”
Topitzes J, Mersky JP, Reynolds AJ. J Pediatr Psychol. 2009 Dec 7. Child Maltreatment and Adult Cigarette Smoking: A Long-term Developmental Model.Abstract
For a group of Americans followed from childhood to young adulthood, maltreatment was associated with daily cigarette smoking and was mediated by factors including family support and stability
Wenthe PJ, Janz KF, Levy SM. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2009 Aug;21(3):291-304. Gender similarities and differences in factors associated with adolescent moderate-vigorous physical activity.Abstract
Among a group of American adolescents, family support had a stronger association with moderate to vigorous physical activity than factors such as self-efficacy to overcome barriers, enjoyment of physical activity, peer support, perceived school climate, and access to physical activity

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GETTING QUALITY COACHING 
Alvarez MS, Balaguer I, Castillo I, Duda JL. Span J Psychol. 2009 May;12(1):138-48. Coach autonomy support and quality of sport engagement in young soccer players.Abstract
Among a group of young male soccer players, coach autonomy support of athletes was associated with their motivation levels and enjoyment with participating
Bell CC. J Natl Med Assoc. 1997 Aug;89(8):517-20. Promotion of mental health through coaching competitive sports. (review)Full Text
Coaches’ behaviors have been associated with athletes’ mental health, particularly in regards to focusing on developing human potential as much as winning
Coatsworth JD, Conroy DE. Dev Psychol. 2009 Mar;45(2):320-8. The effects of autonomy-supportive coaching, need satisfaction, and self-perceptions on initiative and identity in youth swimmers.Abstract
Among American children ages 10-18 participating in a 7-week summer swim league, coaches’ “process-focused praise” was associated with participants’ perceived competence and self-esteem.
Conroy DE, Coatsworth JD. J Pers. 2007 Apr;75(2):383-419. Coaching behaviors associated with changes in fear of failure: changes in self-talk and need satisfaction as potential mechanisms.Abstract
Among youth participants in a summer swim league, perceptions of control by and blame from coaches were associated with athletes’ self-talk negativity and fear of failure
Lafrenière MA, Jowett S, Vallerand RJ, Gonahue EG, Lorimer R. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2008 Oct;30(5):541-60. Passion in sport: on the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.Abstract
Coach-athlete relationship quality was associated with coaches’ subjective well-being and levels of “harmonious” rather than “obsessive passion”
Ommundsen Y, Roberts GC, Lemyre PN, Miller BW. Clin J Sport Med. 2006 Nov;16(6):522-6. Parental and coach support or pressure on psychosocial outcomes of pediatric athletes in soccer.Abstract
Among a group of youth soccer players, combined pressure from parents and coaches was associated with reduced soccer-specific confidence and overconcern about making mistakes

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USING PROPER EQUIPMENT AND RECOGNIZING ITS LIMITATIONS 
Abu-Zidan FM, Nagelkerke N, Rao S. Emerg Med Australas. 2007 Aug;19(4):366-71. Factors affecting severity of bicycle-related injuries: the role of helmets in preventing head injuries.Abstract
Among bicyclists, helmet use was associated with reduced injury severity due to head protection
dela Cruz GG, Knapik JJ, Birk MG. Dent Traumatol. 2008 Feb;24(1):86-90. Evaluation of mouthguards for the prevention of orofacial injuries during United States Army basic military training.Abstract
Among a group of adults participating in basic military training activities such as pugil stick training and unarmed combat, use of boil-and-bite mouthguards was associated with reduced rates of orofacial injury
Gallo MF, Steiner MJ, Warner L, Hylton-Kong T, Figueroa JP, Hobbs MM, Behets FM. Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Oct;34(10):829-33. Self-reported condom use is associated with reduced risk of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis.Abstract
Among a group of sexually active men, condom was associated with a reduced risk of urethral sexually transmitted infections, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis
Hagel BE, Pless IB, Goulet C, Platt RW, Robitaille Y. BMJ. 2005 Feb 5;330(7486):281. Effectiveness of helmets in skiers and snowboarders: case-control and case crossover study.Full Text
Among skiers and snowboarders visiting ski areas in Quebec in 2001-2002, helmet use was associated with a reduced risk of head injury, while associations with neck injuries were less clear
Knapik JJ, Marshall SW, Lee RB, Darakjy SS, Jones SB, Mitchener TA, delaCruz GG, Jones BH. Sports Med. 2007;37(2):117-44. Mouthguards in sport activities : history, physical properties and injury prevention effectiveness. (meta-analysis)Abstract
Based on numerous studies involving a variety of sports, mouthguard use was associated with a 50-60% reduced risk of orofacial injury
Liu BC, Ivers R, Norton R, Boufous S, Blows S, Lo SK. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD004333. Helmets for preventing injury in motorcycle riders. (review)Abstract
In a variety of studies, helmet use has been associated with reduced mortality and head injury among motorcyclists who have crashed
Steiner MJ, Dominik R, Rountree RW, Nanda K, Dorflinger LJ. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Mar;101(3):539-47. Contraceptive effectiveness of a polyurethane condom and a latex condom: a randomized controlled trial.Abstract
Among 901 couples using male condoms as their only form of contraception for six months, pregnancy occurred for 9.0% of couples using polyurethane condoms and for 5.4% of couples using latex condoms
Vera EG, Orozco HH, Soto SS, Aburto EL. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 2008 Feb;76(2):88-96. Condom effectiveness to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. (review, in Spanish)Abstract
Based on a variety of studies, male condom use was associated with reduced sexually transmitted disease risk, with protection in cases of “heterosexual serodiscordant partners” varying from 60-95%, depending on the disease and the study
Weller S, Davis K. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD003255. Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission.Abstract
Among sexually active couples with initially one member being HIV-positive, consistent condom use was associated with an 80% reduction in the risk of transmission compared to never using condoms

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HAVING DECENT HEALTH INSURANCE 
Rosen H, Saleh F, Lipsitz SR, Meara JG, Rogers SO Jr. J Pediatr Surg. 2009 Oct;44(10):1952-7. Lack of insurance negatively affects trauma mortality in US children.Abstract
For Americans aged 17 and younger, even after accounting for numerous potential confounding variables, mortality following trauma was more likely among those without insurance or having public insurance compared to those with commercial insurance

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